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open access eISSN 2093-3673

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Anat Cell Biol 2023; 56(4): 562-565

Published online December 31, 2023


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Anatomical variation of quadratus plantae in relation with flexor digitorum brevis

Punnapa Raviteja1 , Mrudula Chandrupatla1 , Ramoju Harshitha2 , Marni Sameer Chowdary1

1Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Science Bibinagar, Bibinagar, 2Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Science Bathinda, Bathinda, India

Correspondence to:Punnapa Raviteja
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Science Bibinagar, Bibinagar 508126, India
E-mail: punnaparaviteja5@gmail.com

Received: April 17, 2023; Revised: May 13, 2023; Accepted: June 20, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The muscles of the sole have been traditionally categorized into four layers, but it is more practical to divide them into peripheral and central groups. The peripheral groups include medial and lateral groups. The central plantar muscles are more numerous and divided into superficial and deep layers. During routine dissection in the Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences Bibinagar, Hyderabad, variations are been observed in the plantar intrinsic muscle in the left foot & right foot of a 53-year-old male cadaver. This is the first cadaveric report of a combination of discrepancies especially the inter-tendinous connection between quadratus plantae and flexor digitorum brevis. Similar observations in the literature were not found by us. It is important to identify and study these dissimilarities of muscles of the sole for surgeons, anatomists, radiologists and orthopaedics as these muscles and tendons are used in foot reconstructive procedures, and for the treatment of some congenital anomalies.

Keywords: Quadratus plantae, Flexor digitorum brevis, Sole, Foot, Flexor digitorum accessories

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