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open access eISSN 2093-3673

Impact Factor


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Original Article

Anat Cell Biol 2023; 56(4): 428-434

Published online December 31, 2023


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Morphological and morphometric study of pulmonary vein anatomy in relation to cardiac invasive and electrophysiological procedures

Harshal Oza , Bhavik Doshi

Department of Anatomy, GMERS Medical College and Hospital, Sola, Ahmedabad, India

Correspondence to:Harshal Oza
Department of Anatomy, GMERS Medical College and Hospital, Sola, Ahmedabad 380060, India
E-mail: harshal.j.oza@gmail.com

Received: May 16, 2023; Revised: August 18, 2023; Accepted: September 15, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Pulmonary veins (PVs) and their myocardial sleeves play an important role in the development of atrial fibrillation. Hence, detailed knowledge of PV anatomy is required to improve the procedural success rate and prevent complications during cardiac procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the PV anatomy along with anatomical variations in the Indian population. Total 100 formalin fixed cadaveric hearts were examined. The number and pattern of the PVs were observed along with the measurement of their horizontal and vertical diameters. The ovality index for each PV was calculated. Classical PV pattern was observed in 62% cases. Variant pattern like additional right middle PV pattern and left common PV pattern were found in 20% and 10% cases respectively. A separate pattern with presence of both right middle PV and left common PV was observed in 6% cases. In the classical pattern right superior PV was the largest followed by right inferior, left superior and left inferior PV. The additional right middle PV had the smallest diameter whereas the left common PV had the largest diameter. Almost all the veins had greater vertical diameters in comparison to horizontal diameters. The variant PVs were oval and had greater ovality index compared to the normal PVs. In classical pattern 54.8% hearts whereas in variant pattern 79% hearts had one or more oval PV. The given data can help clinicians for planning and execution of various interventional and electrophysiological procedures involving PVs.

Keywords: Pulmonary veins, Atrial fibrillation, Left atrium, Radiofrequency catheter ablation

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