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open access eISSN 2093-3673

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Original Article

Anat Cell Biol 2023; 56(2): 179-184

Published online June 30, 2023


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Study of frontal and ethmoid sinus of sinonasal complex along with olfactory fossa: anatomical considerations for endoscopic sinus surgery

Kusum R Gandhi , Sumit Tulshidas Patil , Brijesh Kumar , Manmohan Patel , Prashant Chaware

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal, India

Correspondence to:Sumit Tulshidas Patil
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bhopal 462020, India
E-mail: dr.sumitpatil1122@gmail.com

Received: November 16, 2022; Revised: December 23, 2022; Accepted: December 28, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The Functional endoscopic sinus surgery through transnasal approach is a common modality of treatment for disorders of the nasal cavity, paranasal air sinuses as well as cranial cavity. The olfactory fossa (OF) is located along the superior aspect of cribriform plate which varies in shape and depth. This variable measurement of the depth of OF is mostly responsible for greater risk of intracranial infiltration during endoscopic procedures in and around the nasal cavity. The morphology of frontal and ethmoid sinus (ES) vary from simple to complex. This cadaveric study is planned to improve the ability of the otolaryngologist, radiologist to understand the possible morphological variations and plan steps of less invasive “precision surgery” to have a safe and complication free procedures. A total of 37 human head regions were included in the study. For classification of OF, Modified Kero’s classification was used. The size, shape and cells of frontal and ES were noted. We found, type II (60.8%) OF was more common followed by type I (29.7%) than type III (9.5%). The shape of frontal sinus was comma shaped (55.4%) followed by oval (18.9%) than irregular (16.2%). Most common two cells type of ES was seen in 50.0% of both anterior and posterior ES. Out of 74 ES, 8.1% of Onodi cells and 14.9% of agger nasi cells were seen.

Keywords: Cribriform plate, Frontal sinus, Ethmoid sinus, Paranasal sinuses, Nasal cavity, Ethmoid bone

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