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Original Article

Anat Cell Biol 2020; 53(4): 460-470

Published online December 31, 2020

https://doi.org/10.5115/acb.20.193

Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Effect of cypermethrin on the postnatal development of the medulla oblongata and the possible protective role of melatonin in albino rats

Marwa A. Al-Gholam , Noha M. Issa

Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt

Correspondence to:Marwa A. Al-Gholam
Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Shebin El Kom, 32511, Egypt
E-mail: marwaelgholam@yahoo.com, marwa.mohyeldeen@med.menofia.edu.eg

Received: July 23, 2020; Revised: September 1, 2020; Accepted: September 16, 2020

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that cypermethrin (CYP), a broad spectrum pesticide has a teratogenic effect on rat offspring born to an exposed dam with no information on its effect on the development of the brain. To the best of our knowledge, this research is the first attempt to study the postnatal development medulla oblongata of rat offspring exposed to CYP during the perinatal period and the possible neuroprotective role of melatonin. The offspring of treated female rats were organized into control, melatonin (1 mg/kg/day orally); CYP (12 mg/kg/day orally); and CYP/melatonin groups. The mothers received treatments from day 6 of gestation until day 21 after birth. At Postnatal days 7 and 21, the animals were sacrificed and their medulla oblongata was removed and subjected to histological, immunohistochemical, and electron microscopic studies. CYP induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis. Nuclear changes, cytoplasmic vacuolation, damage mitochondria, and breakdown of RER were also detected. Reduction of microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2), myelin basic protein (MBP), and oligodendrocyte transcription factor expressions and increment of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in the medulla oblongata of the developing rats were observed. On the other hand, melatonin led to an obvious improvement of the injured medulla oblongata tissues and ameliorating the damaging effects of CYP. In conclusion, melatonin has protected rats against CYP-induced histopathological and immunohistochemical changes. This may be due to the protection of MAP-2, conservation of MBP, an increment of oligodendrocytes, and alleviation of astrogliosis.

Keywords: Cypermethrin, Melatonin, Medulla oblongata, Immunohistochemistry

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