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open access eISSN 2093-3673

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Anat Cell Biol

Published online February 28, 2024


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Tri-ramification of left external carotid artery associated with anatomical variation of its branches and aneurysm formation

Punnapa Raviteja , Mrudula Chandrupatla , Rohini Motwani

Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar, India

Correspondence to:Punnapa Raviteja
Department of Anatomy, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Bibinagar 508126, India
E-mail: punnaparaviteja5@gmail.com

Received: December 21, 2023; Revised: January 9, 2024; Accepted: January 19, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Essential sources of arterial vascularisation in the head and neck region are the left and right common carotid arteries (CCA) and their branches. The left CCA (LCCA) originates from the arch of the aorta and the right CCA originates from the brachiocephalic trunk. In this case report, there was a bilateral higher division of CCA at the plane of the greater cornua of the hyoid bone, unilateral tri-ramification of the LCCA and the left external carotid artery (LECA), and the origin of the linguo-facial trunk and the pharyngo-occipital trunk from the LECA. An aneurysm formed in the distal part of LECA before its termination. In this case, we propose a novel categorization called the punnapatla classification for the anatomical variance branching forms of ECA. These kinds of variations are important to the surgeons, and anaesthetists, during the surgeries of the head and neck.

Keywords: Carotid arteries, Neck, Aneurysm, Cadaver, Classification of the external carotid artery

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