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open access eISSN 2093-3673

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Anat Cell Biol

Published online February 7, 2024


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Biometric analysis hand parameters in young adults for prosthetic hand and ergonomic product applications

Gkionoul Ntelı Chatzıoglou1,2 , Yelda Pınar1 , Figen Govsa1

1Department of Anatomy, Digital Imaging and 3D Modeling Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Ege University, Izmir, 2Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Health and Technology University, Istanbul, Turkey

Correspondence to:Gkionoul Ntelı Chatzıoglou
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul Health and Technology University, Istanbul 34500, Turkey
E-mail: gkionoul.chatzioglou@istun.edu.tr

Received: December 26, 2023; Accepted: January 10, 2024

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study aimed to evaluate the superficial anatomy, kinesiology, and functions of the hand to reveal its morphometry and apply the findings in various fields such as prosthetic hand and protective hand support product design. We examined 51 young adults (32 females, 19 males) aged between 18–30. Hand photographs were taken, and measurements were conducted using ImageJ software. Pearson correlation analysis was performed to determine the relationship between personal information and the parameters. The results of the measurements showed the average lengths of finger segments: thumb (49.5±5.5 mm), index finger (63.9±4.1 mm), middle finger (70.7±5.2 mm), ring finger (65.5±4.8 mm), and little finger (53.3±4.3 mm). Both females and males, the left index finger was measured longer than the right index finger. The right ring finger was found to be longer than the left in both sexes. Additionally, length differences between fingers in extended and maximally adducted positions were determined: thumb-index finger (56.1±6.2 mm), index-middle finger (10.7±4.1 mm), middle-ring finger (10.8±1.4 mm), and ring-little finger (25.6±2.7 mm). Other findings included the average radial natural angle (56.4°±10.5°), ulnar natural angle (23.4°±7.1°), radial deviation angle (65.2°±8.2°), ulnar deviation angle (51.2°±9.6°), and grasping/gripping angle (49.1°±5.8°). The average angles between fingers in maximum abduction positions were also measured: thumb-index finger (53.4°±6.5°), index-middle finger (17.2°±2.6°), middle-ring finger (14.3°±2.3°), and ring-little finger (32.1°±7.0°). The study examined the variability in the positioning of proximal interphalangeal joints during maximum metacarpophalangeal and proximal interphalangeal flexion, coinciding with maximum distal interphalangeal extension movements. The focal points of our observations were the asymmetrical and symmetrical arches formed by these joints. This study provides valuable hand parameters in young adults, which can be utilized in various applications such as prosthetic design, ergonomic product development, and hand-related research. The results highlight the significance of considering individual factors when assessing hand morphology and function.

Keywords: Anatomy, Hand, Biometry, Ergonomics, Fingers

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