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open access eISSN 2093-3673

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Anat Cell Biol

Published online January 19, 2024


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Anatomical study of the zygomaticofacial foramen and zygomatic canals communicating with the zygomaticofacial foramen for zygomatic implant treatment: a cadaver study with micro-computed tomography analysis

Kouhei Kawata , Yoshiaki Ide , Masataka Sunohara

Department of Anatomy, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan

Correspondence to:Yoshiaki Ide
Department of Anatomy, The Nippon Dental University School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, Tokyo 102-8159, Japan
E-mail: ideaki@tky.ndu.ac.jp

Received: December 12, 2023; Revised: December 21, 2023; Accepted: December 26, 2023

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In the present study, anatomical assessment of zygomaticofacial foramina (ZFFs) and zygomatic canals communicating with ZFFs were performed using cadaver micro-computed tomography images. It was suggested that all ZFFs were located above the jugale (Ju)-zygomaxillare (Zm) line, which is the reference line connecting the Ju and Zm, and most were located in the zygomatic body area (ZBA). The anteroposterior position of the ZFF in the ZBA was within a middle to posterior region and was most often located slightly posteriorly in males and closer to the middle of the region in females. The mean distance from the Ju-Zm line to the ZFF in the ZBA was 12.36 mm (standard deviation [SD] 1.52 mm) in males and 11.48 mm (SD 1.61 mm) in females. In zygomatic canals communicating with ZFFs, most zygomatic canals were type I canals, communicating from the zygomaticoorbital foramen and harboring the zygomaticofacial nerve, and the others were type II canals, communicating from the zygomaticotemporal foramen and located near the posterior margin of the frontal process. These results provide useful anatomical information for preventing nerve injury during surgical procedures for zygomatic implant treatment.

Keywords: Zygomatic implants, Zygomaticofacial nerve, Zygomatic canal, Zygomaticofacial foramen, Micro-computed tomography

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