Anat Cell Biol
Published online October 21, 2022
Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.
National Research Mordovia State University, Saransk, Russia
Correspondence to:Basheer Abdullah Marzoog
National Research Mordovia State University, Bolshevitskaya Street 68, Saransk 430005, Russia
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Endothelial cells (EC) are the anatomical boundaries between the intravascular and extravascular space. Damage to ECs is catastrophic and induces endothelial cell dysfunction. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and involves dysregulation in the signaling pathways, membrane lipids ratio disturbance, cell-cell adhesion disturbance, unfolded protein response, lysosomal and mitochondrial stress, autophagy dysregulation, and oxidative stress. Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent turnover of intracellular components. Autophagy was recognized early in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction. Autophagy is a remarkable patho (physiological) process in the cell homeostasis regulation including EC. Regulation of autophagy rate is disease-dependent and impaired with aging. Up-regulation of autophagy induces endothelial cell regeneration/differentiation and improves the function of impaired ones. The paper scrutinizes the molecular mechanisms and triggers of EC dysregulation and current perspectives for future therapeutic strategies by autophagy targeting.
Keywords: Endothelial cells, Autophagy, Molecular medicine, Regeneration