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Anat Cell Biol

Published online October 6, 2022


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Nasal septal anatomical variations among Saudi population and their possible coincidence with sinusitis: a computed tomography scan study

Gisma Ahmed Madani1 , Wael Amin Nasr El-Din2,3 , Asmaa S. Essawy4 , Khamrunissa Hussain5 , Islam Omar Abdel Fattah3

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, The National University, Khartoum, Sudan, 2Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain, 3Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, 4Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Menoufia University, Menoufia, Egypt, 5Department of Family and Community Medicine, Ibn Sina National College for Medical Studies, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence to:Islam Omar Abdel Fattah
Department of Human Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41511, Egypt
E-mail: islam_omar2007@yahoo.com

Received: June 1, 2022; Revised: August 5, 2022; Accepted: August 6, 2022

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The nasal septum is a crucial supporting factor for the nasal cavity and may develop several anatomical variants including septal deviation, spur and pneumatization. These variants could be associated with a higher incidence of sinusitis due to structural and functional alterations. So, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of nasal septal deviation (NSD), nasal septal spur (NSS) and nasal septal pneumatization (NSP) among the Saudi adult population and their links with the incidence of sinusitis by using computed tomography (CT). A retrospective study was achieved over a twenty-two months period on 681 adult Saudi subjects (420 males and 261 females) aged 20 years or older, referred for coronal CT evaluation of the paranasal sinuses. NSD and NSS were significantly more prevalent in males than females (80.0% vs. 67.4% respectively for NSD, and 34.5% vs. 24.9% respectively for NSS), while there was no statistical difference in frequency of NSP regarding gender (P=0.670). The incidence of sinusitis was significantly higher in presence of NSD and/or NSS (P<0.001 for both). On the contrary, NSP was not associated with a significant increase in the prevalence of sinusitis (P=0.131). In conclusion, NSD and NSS are more prevalent in males than females among the Saudi population with no statistical difference between both genders regarding the presence of septal pneumatization. Furthermore, sinusitis is more prevalent with the occurrence of NSD and NSS, and not related to the incidence of NSP.

Keywords: Nasal septal variation, Saudi population, Sinusitis, Computed tomography

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