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Anat Cell Biol

Published online August 25, 2020


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

A rice bran phytochemical, cyanidin 3-glucoside, inhibits the progression of PC3 prostate cancer cell

Kamonwan Jongsomchai1 , Vijittra Leardkamolkarn1 , Sugunya Mahatheeranont2

1Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Correspondence to:Kamonwan Jongsomchai
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400, Thailand
E-mail: k.jongsomchai@gmail.com

Received: April 10, 2020; Revised: June 8, 2020; Accepted: July 13, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Prostate cancer is one of the high incidences and the most invasive cancer that is also highly resistant to chemotherapy. Currently, several natural products have been considering using as the supplements for anti-cancer therapy. This study aims to identify the potential active anti-cancer ingredients in the bran extracts of the native Thai rice (Luempua cultivar). Rice bran fraction enriched in anthocyanins was successively isolated and processed until the major purified compound obtained. The sub-fractions and the purified, rice bran, cyanidin 3-glucoside (RBC3G), were studied for biological effects (cell viability, migration, and invasion assays) on human prostatic cancer (PC3) cells using immunohistochemical-staining and immuno-blotting approaches. The sub-fractions and the purified RBC3G inhibited epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) characteristics of PC3 cells by blocking the expression of several cytoskeletal associate proteins in a concentration dependent manner, leading to decreasing of the cancer cell motility. RBC3G reduced the expression of Smad/Snail signaling molecules but enhanced the expression of cell surface protein, E-cadherin, leading to a delay tumor transformation. The RBC3G also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase-9 and nuclear factor-kappa B expression levels and the enzymes activity in PC3 cells, leading to a slow cell migration/invasion process. The results suggested that RBC3G blunt and/or delay the progressive cancer cell behaviors by inhibit EMT through Smad signaling pathway(s) mediating Snail/E-cadherin expression.

Keywords: Anthocyanins, Anticancer, β-catenin, Epithelial mesenchymal transition, Snail

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