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Anat Cell Biol

Published online August 20, 2020

https://doi.org/10.5115/acb.20.087

Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Anatomical study and branching point of neurovascular structures at the medial side of the ankle

Chanatporn Inthasan1 , Tanawat Vaseenon2 , Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh3,4,5

1PhD Degree Program in Anatomy, Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Orthopedics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 3Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 4Forensic Osteology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Excellence in Osteology Research and Training Center (ORTC), Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand

Correspondence to:Pasuk Mahakkanukrauh
Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
E-mail: pasuk034@gmail.com

Received: April 11, 2020; Revised: June 23, 2020; Accepted: July 21, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Nerve entrapment and blood circulation impairment associated with the medial side of the ankle are not uncommon. The purpose of this study was to describe the anatomical basis of neurovascular structures of the medial ankle which comprised the number, origin, branching pattern, and branching point. Forty feet of fresh cadavers were examined by using 2 reference lines: the malleolar-calcaneal (MC) and navicular-calcaneal (NC) axes. We recorded number, origin, length of the 2 axes, the locations and widths of neurovascular structures on MC and NC axes, the branching point of neurovascular structures, and the branching pattern of neurovascular structures was recorded and was separated into 5 types. The posterior tibial nerve (PTN) bifurcated to plantar and calcaneal nerves and branched proximally to the tarsal tunnel (TT). The posterior tibial artery bifurcated to plantar and calcaneal arteries and branched inferiorly to PTN and within the TT. The calcaneal nerves and arteries had more variation of number and origin. The most common branching point of calcaneal nerves and arteries is within the TT, except the medial calcaneal nerve. It branched proximally to the TT. The anatomical knowledge from this study is important for the diagnosis and treatment of clinicians.

Keywords: Tibial nerve, Tibial arteries, Ankle

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