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Anat Cell Biol

Published online August 12, 2020


Copyright © Korean Association of ANATOMISTS.

Grape seed extract inhibits nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis and attenuates annular puncture induced intervertebral disc degeneration in rabbit model

Ogunlade B.1 , Fidelis O.P.2 , Adelakun S.A.1 , Adedotun O.A.1

1Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, 2Department of Biomedical Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria

Correspondence to:Ogunlade B.
Department of Human Anatomy, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State 340252, Nigeria
E-mail: bogunlade@futa.edu.ng

Received: March 6, 2020; Revised: April 14, 2020; Accepted: June 24, 2020

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Low back pain is a musculoskeletal disorders implicated to disc degeneration. Grape seed extracts (GSEs) is a natural flavonoids rich compound with antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is aimed at investigating the inhibitory and anabolic response of GSE on annular punctured induced disc degeneration in rabbit model. Twenty-Eight New Zealand white rabbits (weighing about 2.0–3.5 kg) were used with institutional animal care committee’s approval. The animals were divided into four groups (n=7 per group). Group A (non-punctured group) received distilled water orally for 4 weeks. Group B (punctured group) received distilled water for 4 weeks. Group C (punctured treated group) received distilled water for 4 weeks and thereafter received 500 mg/kg of GSE for another 4 weeks. Group D received 500 mg/kg of GSE immediately after puncture for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed with intramuscular injection of ketamine followed by intravenous injection of sodium pentobarbital. The percentage disc height index of the punctured group showed significant decrease compared to the control and treated groups. Histological and immunohistochemical studies showed distortion in the disc morphology, decrease in chondrocyte like cells, disorganization of collagen and elastic fibers, increase Bax expression levels in the punctured group compared to control and treated groups which was attenuated after GSE administration. GSE has preventive and restorative effects on punctured induced disc preventing the degradation of collagen fibrils within the disc tissues.

Keywords: Disc degeneration, Grape seed extract, Apoptosis, Gene expression, Histology

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