ACB 로고

pISSN 2093-3665 eISSN 2093-3673
Table. 1.

Gene mutation caused classic bladder exstrophy

Type of mutation/genotype BEEC type and associated anomalies References
Shh and FGF 8 CBE
Developmental disorders of the genital tubercle
Absent cloacal membrane
A cloacal membrane is formed but directed caudally
Deformity or failure of the body wall closure
Alx 4 CBE
Defects affecting developmental processes in the formation of the ventral body wall
External genital organs, such as phenotypic abnormalities of the bladder with epispadias concomitant with defects of the upper genital tubercle
Gli 3 CBE
Damage to the body wall covering
ISL 1 CBE [18]

BEEC, bladder-exstrophy-epispadias complex; CBE, classic bladder exstrophy.

Anat Cell Biol 2023;56:421~427
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